By Gordon Martel

A significant other to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to eu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero

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Gypsies were thus seen by many as inherently criminal, and increasing efforts were made to observe and regulate their movements. In France, an official circular noted that gypsy caravans were “all too often composed of criminals” and from 1912 all such individuals had to carry a carnet anthropometrique – an identity card giving details of their family tree. 18 Thus, while perceptions of the link between the poor and crime changed significantly in the first half of the century (and were arguably eroded to some extent) cities, poverty, and crime remained conceptually linked up until World War II.

Variations between countries were marked, and even within individual nations processes of urbanization could vary considerably. London was by far the biggest city in Europe at the turn of the century – twice the size of Paris and almost five times as populous as Moscow. However, Paris in 1911 (together with its suburbs), dominated urban life in France to a greater extent than London did England, and had more inhabitants than all other French cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants put together.

The empirical social survey was probably most common in England during the early twentieth century, which is interesting in itself given that the measurement of per capita income shows that Britain was clearly the richest country in Europe at the time. Elsewhere, however, concern over the condition of the lowest social strata was also in evidence. In Germany, housing provision and the problems of overcrowding were particular issues. In 1907, for example, the socialist Rosa Luxemburg was prompted to write “In the Shelter” to criticize the Berlin authorities (and even her own party) for their neglect of the homeless.

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