By Walter Rüegg

Via targeting the liberty of medical examine, instructing and research, the medieval college constitution used to be modernized and enabled discoveries to develop into a certified, bureaucratically-regulated task of the collage. This opened the way in which for the positive march of the usual sciences, and ended in scholar movements--resulting within the college being eventually solid within the function of a fortress of political fight in a world-wide struggle for freedom. additionally on hand: quantity 1: Universities within the center a long time 0-521-36105-2 Hardback $140.00 C quantity 2: Universities in Early smooth Europe (1500-1800) 0-521-36106-0 Hardback $130.00 C

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Additional info for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800-1945) (A History of the University in Europe)

Sample text

42 Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902), who developed the cell theory of his ¨ teacher Muller through the knowledge that cells are generated when dividing, gave the annual speech for 1893 in memory of the royal founder of the University of Berlin. As his topic, he developed a thesis proposed by the founder of electrical engineering, Werner von Siemens (1816–92), who had stated that mankind had entered the age of science in which the natural sciences were orientated towards practical use, thus making good Francis Bacon’s (1561–1626) postulate that nature can be dominated through science.

III: 1800–1870. Von der Neuordnung Deutschlands ¨ bis zur Grundung des Deutschen Reiches (Munich, 1987), 106–9. ), Handbuch, 108. ¨ ¨ W. Ruegg, ‘Die Antike als Begrundung des deutschen Nationalbewusstseins’, in ¨ und W. ), Antike in der Moderne, Xenia Konstanzer Althistorische Vortrage Forschungen 15 (Konstanz, 1985), 267–87. 23 ¨ Walter Ruegg uprising under the leadership of Tadeusz Kos’ciuszko (1746–1817). A similar uprising occurred – successfully – in the German struggle for liberation under Napoleon.

B. G. Niebuhr, Romische Geschichte, Berichtigte Ausgabe in einem Bande, 5th edn (Berlin, 1853), vol. I, xv–xvi. ¨ W. von Humboldt, ‘Uber die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaus und ihren Einfluss auf die geistige Entwicklung des Menschengeschlechts (1830–1835)’, in Werke in ¨ Banden, ¨ funf ed. A. Flitner and K. Giel, vol. III, Schriften zur Sprachphilosophie (Darmstadt, 1965), 392. The new edition (2002) includes an epilogue (Nachwort) describing the research on Humboldt made since 1981 and adding a bibliography 1981–2001.

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