By Roger Narayan; Paolo Colombo; Michael Halbig; Sanjay Mathur; American Ceramic Society

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Extra info for Advances in bioceramics and porous ceramics V : a collection of papers presented at the 36th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 22-27, 2012, Daytona Beach, Florida

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Both the number and size of flaws will affect the fracture stress. If the flaw size was the dominant factor for fracture, the critical fracture stress could be predicted based on Griffith Mode I fracture [ 17] G Kic C ~ u,cl/2 (2) Where, oc and K/c are the critical fracture stress and critical stress intensity factor, or fracture toughness, ÎP is a crack geometry related factor, and c is the critical crack length. The flaws were treated as penny-shaped cracks. m172). m172, measured previously on another crown sample.

Research has shown there are large residual stresses [8-9]. Lohbauer et ai [4] analyzed fractography of a failed zirconia frame work and found that the defect cluster in the veneer layer and preexisting stress are reasons of failure, and defects at 35 urn can induce local veneer chipping. Reliability and longevity of all ceramic crowns have always been a concern. Knowing the flaw size and distribution will be a significant advantage and can help control the quality of crowns or other dental restorations and reduce the failure rate in clinical practice.

Figure la) An optical microscope image of sectioned sample, b) SEM micrographs of interface c) zoom image d) Edax element mapping shows the distribution of zirconium element at interface of zirconia and porcelain. Figure lb illustrates a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the zirconia-porcelain interface. Cutting marks left behind by the diamond cutter are visible just on the zirconia side. While in low magnification bonding between porcelain and zirconia appears uninterrupted, a higher magnification image of the interface exposes small micro cracks less than 5 urn running along the 38 • Advances in Bioceramics and Porous Ceramics V Residual Stress and Phase Transformation in Zirconia Restoration interface.

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