By Steve Webber, Jan-Anders Karlsson (auth.), Dr. David Raeburn, Dr. Mark A. Giembycz (eds.)

Building at the current titles within the "Airways gentle Muscle" sub-series, the 6th quantity explores physiological and pharmacological approaches within the lung in vivo. a few of the animal versions to be had for learning the bronchospasm and irritation linked to human bronchial asthma are completely reviewed via across the world regarded scientists. particular chapters concentrate on the issues of administering medicinal drugs to animal airlines, the mechanics of assessing lung functionality within the versions, and describe intimately the species used, from rodents to primates. using genetically altered animals, a space of specific curiosity to molecular biologists, is usually thought of intensive. This updated and largely referenced paintings will end up precious to pharmacologists, physiologists and different organic scientists in any respect degrees in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry.

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The size of the aerosol particles is affected by the physical properties of the liquid being nebulized, the type of nebulizer used, and the air flow rate. Increasing the air flow rate will generate smaller droplets and therefore a greater fraction of the aerosol will be of respirable size [6]. When a jet nebulizer is activated, solvent evaporation may cause drug solutions to become more concentrated. In contrast, this does not seem to be a significant problem with ultrasonic nebulizers. Activation of a Wright jet nebulizer for 30 minutes was shown to increase the reservoir concentration of a tracer by 3-fold [5].

Underwood and D. Raeburn stance [14, 17-19]. When administered to the guinea pig airways in adequate doses, the bronchodilator drugs salbutamol and meta proterenol each provided a longer duration of action when encapsulated in liposomes than when administered as the free drug. However, when a lower dose of metaproterenol was used, the liposomal formulation was less effective than the free drug, probably because the slow release rate from the formulation failed to produce an effective peak concentration in the airways [14, 15, 20, 21].

26. Andre A, Charuau J, Rateau G, Vavasseur C, Metivier H. Design of a new inhalation device for rodents and primates. J Aerosol Sci 1989; 20: 647-56. 27. Pennock BE, Cox CP, Rogers RM, Cain WA, WeHs JH. Noninvasive technique for measurement of changes in specific airway resistance. J Appl Physiol 1979; 46: 399-406. 28. Ellakkani MA, Alarie YC, Weyel DA, Mazumdar S, Karo1 MH. Pulmonary reactions to inhaled cotton dust: An animal model for byssinosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1984; 74: 267-84. 29.

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