By George O'Brien

Книга An Essay at the fiscal results of the Reformation An Essay at the fiscal results of the ReformationКниги Экономика Автор: George O'Brien Год издания: 2003 Формат: pdf Издат.:Ihs Press Страниц: 176 Размер: 2,9 ISBN: 0971828628 Язык: Английский 34 (голосов: 1) Оценка:This paintings deals a distinct standpoint at the upward thrust of capitalism and socialism and the impression of the Reformation. particular themes contain effects of trust within the deepest judgment of scriptures; separation of non secular and secular existence; distinction among Lutheran and Calvinist teachings on economics; the Calvinist proposal of vocation; its belief of fabric good fortune as an indication of divine election; its compliment of frugality and disdain for good looks. additionally coated is socialism as a response to excesses of capitalism; the style during which Protestantism had reinforced secular authority; diminuation of charity towards the terrible following Reformation; materialism underlying socialism abetted by means of Protestant emphasis on earthly prosperity; egalitarian rules traceable to Protestantism; and the benefit with which socialism combined into Protestant concept. this can be a designated paintings of financial philosophy in that it examines the ideological reasons of the industrial adjustments of the interval, therefore providing a clean philosophical viewpoint instead of purely the mathematical or statistical facets of the query.

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One matter to which we have already referred is the essential unity of the medieval ecclesiastical system. Whether we approve or disapprove of the Catholicism of the later Middle Ages – that is to say, of the religion of civilized Europe at that time – we must recognize that it was a living organism, closely bound up in all its parts. Its activities were manifold, and radiated in innumerable directions; but, however self-centred and independent they may have appeared, they were, in fact, directed to a common purpose and animated by a common spirit.

It was not content merely to preach an ideal code of behaviour to its members, but it strove as far as possible to translate its ideals into action. 76 But the matter does not end there. The power of the medieval Church to regulate economic life by moral axioms rested not alone on any mere accidental circumstance of this kind, but on the much surer and deeper foundation that it was in a position to enforce its regulations by direct sanctions. The ecclesiastical courts were important in this connection, but still more important was the power arising from the insistence on auricular confession.

It was an attack that was bound, in its very nature, to endanger the existence of the Church as a whole; and, if we are correct in saying that medieval civilization rested upon the Church, it was an attack directed against the whole existing order of European society. It was, therefore, in the strict sense of the word, epoch-making from the social standpoint. It was, of course, the aim of the reformers to injure in every possible way the Catholic Church, which they regarded as the great obstacle in the path towards the introduction of the purer and truer form of Christianity which they preached; but they seemed to forget that, if the Church was a formidable antagonist of the reformed doctrines, it was a no less formidable antagonist of other opinions 34 eConoMIC effeCTs In General of which they themselves heartily disapproved, and from which they desired all the protection they could obtain.

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