By Adriel R. Bonilla
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Additional info for Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms and alternatives
2005; Mathur and Singh, 2005). , 1999). Some of the resistance of bifidobacteria is likely to be intrinsic. Although intrinsic resistance is recognized and presents predictable resistance upon administration to humans, the chances of the resistance being transferred to other microorganisms in unspecified circumstances are not non-zero. Transfer of chromosomal resistance genes has been documented between Lactobacillus and E. faecalis, causing concerns for the possible dissemination of the intrinsic resistance of probiotics among microorganisms (Mathur and Singh, 2005).
As suggested by Marteau and Shanahan (2003), probiotics with antibiotic resistance are not necessarily a hazard unless the antibiotic resistance genes could be transferred to potential pathogens. This transfer would result in negative therapeutic consequences, including the emergence of more virulent pathogenic bacteria that cannot be treated by a previous successful antibiotic regimen. The more virulent bacteria would require an increased antibiotic dosage or the use of more powerful antibiotics, which will incur higher treatment cost, in order to clear the infection.
The ability to translocate is a highly recommended indicator for the assessment of probiotic safety globally (Marteau and Salminen, 1997). The inability to translocate in antibiotic-resistant probiotics serves as a safety indicator for the particular probiotic strains used in food products or animal feeds. Therefore, there is a detailed understanding of the host and microbial factors that affect antibiotic-resistant probiotic infections, including the mechanisms underlying translocation, the survival of the probiotic cells and the infectivity of the probiotic cells, is necessary.