By G. Underwood (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Attention and Memory
Subjects should then show a REA when instructed to report right ear items first and a LEA when instructed to report left ear items first. Bryden (1963, 1965) has used this experimental design, and found that the REA still shows through. A second experiment also provides data with which we can reject the order-effect model. Broadbent and Gregory (1964a) presented a dichotic list followed by a recognition probe. The subject had to respond "yes" or " n o " as to whether or not the probe word had been presented as part of the dichotic list.
The less transient and more steady-state a sound becomes (or less encoded as Liberman et al would describe it) the greater is the accuracy of acoustic storage. The encodedness model has been questioned recently in a paper by Darwin and Baddeley (1974) which reports a number of experiments concerning recall of sequences. First, they showed a recency effect (indicating acoustic storage) for discriminable consonant-vowel syllables ("sha, ma, ga" and "ash, am, ag"). Crowder (1971) failed to obtain this effect with syllables constructed of stop consonants and vowels ("ba, da, ga"), confirming that distinctions between storage stages are not a simple matter of the distinctions between consonants and vowels.
In this situation distinctive features between the vowels are degraded during input and so the adverse effects of storage in acoustic memory are increased, the distinctive features of left ear vowels being lost. This is a crucial experiment, for Liberman's encoding model would not consider that because a vowel is degraded it becomes more encoded, perceived categorically, and therefore entitled to a REA. The main points of this chapter have been to stress the importance of the variability of strategies of processing information contained in the visual image, to estabHsh the necessity of acoustic storage, and to indicate how sensory information is passed into categorical memory.