By Bernard J. Paris

the iconic charm of Shakespeare's works derives principally from the truth that they include brilliantly drawn characters. Interpretations of those characters are items of adjusting modes of suggestion, and hence earlier factors in their habit, together with Shakespeare's, now not fulfill us. during this paintings, Bernard J. Paris, an eminent Shakespearean pupil, exhibits how Shakespeare endowed his tragic heroes with enduring human characteristics that experience made them suitable to humans of later eras.

Bargains with Fate employs a psychoanalytic process encouraged through the theories of Karen Horney to research Shakespeare's 4 significant tragedies and the character that may be inferred from all of his works. This compelling research first examines the tragedies as dramas approximately people with conflicts like our personal who're in a country of problem a result of breakdown in their offers with destiny, a trust that they could magically keep watch over their destinies by way of dwelling as much as the dictates in their protective strategies.

jam-packed with daring hypotheses supported by means of rigorously certain money owed, this cutting edge learn is a source for college students and students of Shakespeare, and for these drawn to literature as a resource of mental perception. The author's mix of literary and psychoanalytic views publications us to a humane knowing of Shakespeare and his protagonists, and, in flip, to a extra profound wisdom of ourselves and human behavior.

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Additional resources for Bargains with Fate: Psychological Crises and Conflicts in Shakespeare and His Plays

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When self-hate is conscious, there is often a pride taken in it that serves to maintain self-glorification: "The very condemnation of imperfection confirms the godlike standards with which the person identifies himself" (1950, 114-15). Homey saw self-hate as "perhaps the greatest tragedy of the human mind. Man in reaching out for the Infinite and Absolute also starts destroying himself. When he makes a pact with the devil, who promises him glory, he has to go to hell-to the hell within himself" (1950, 154).

His reaction is so extreme because "it is prompted by his need to fight all softer feelings in himself. Nietzsche gives us a good illustration of these dynamics when he has his superman see any form of sympathy as a sort of fifth column, an enemy operating from within" (1945, 69-70). He fears the emergence of his own compliant trends because they would make him vulnerable in a hostile world, would confront him with self-hate, and would threaten his bargain, which is essentially with himself. He does not count on the world to give him anything but is convinced that he can reach his ambitious goal if he remains true to his vision of life as a battle and does not allow himself to be influenced by his softer feelings or the traditional morality.

But his inner rage threatens his self-image, his philosophy of life, and his bargain; and he must repress, disguise, or justify his anger in order to avoid arousing self-hate and the hostility of others. There are many predominantly compliant (or self-effacing) characters in Shakespeare, the most striking of whom are Henry VI, Helena in A Midsummer-Night's Dream, Antonio in The Merchant of Venice (Paris 1989b), Silvius in As You Like It, Viola (Twelth Night), Hamlet, Desdemona, Duke Vincentio (Measure for Measure), Antony (Paris 1991), Timon of Athens, Prospero (The Tempest), and the poet of the Sonnets (Lewis 1985).

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