By Richard O. Reinhart

This readable, up to date textbook by means of a flight health care professional comprehensively covers the criteria that impact ``medical airworthiness.'' comprises functional chapters on facing in-flight scientific emergencies and on holding flight health with nutrition and workout.

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Inadequate oxygen to the cells (hypoxia) will occur when the saturation goes below 72 percent, where the curve drops off quickly with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. The red blood cells transport oxygen through the use of the hemoglobin. Serum can carry only a small amount of oxygen in solution. The difference between the body’s needs and what the blood can carry is made up by the hemoglobin’s ability to carry oxygen. Any change in the hemoglobin, the number of red blood cells, or the diffusion of gases will cause some form of hypoxia (see Chapter 5); therefore, respiration involves taking in air, transferring it to blood, and then transporting it via arteries to the cells.

Second opinions are recommended, but be sure they are competent opinions. This can result either from an infection, irritation, or injury, among other things. Any part of the body can be potentially inflamed. If the name of a body part ends in -itis, then we are talking about the pathology of inflammation of that part: tendonitis, tonsillitis, appendicitis, arthritis (arthro = joint), meningitis (menin = the covering of the brain), carditis (cardi = heart), and so on. The intensity of the inflammation and the degree of involvement of body parts determines how impaired the pilot will be.

If this whole process does not take place at the usually expected time, the system is fooled, like any disruption of a circadian body rhythm. Hunger and thirst patterns and signals are minimized and ignored, and constipation is common. Other pathology includes common inflammation: esophagitis, gastritis (gastro = stomach), ileitis, colonitis, and proctitis (procto = rectal). Depending on the location, this change can cause a variety of symptoms, ranging from nausea and vomiting to diarrhea. Gastritis can evolve into an ulcer of the lining of the stomach and duodenum.

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