By L. J. Hume

So much money owed of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) take care of him as a prophet of both utilitarianism or of liberal democracy. This booklet discusses a much less favourite yet vitally important point of his political notion: his concept of the way govt associations can be organised so that it will functionality as effective and but responsive guardians of the community's pursuits. It therefore makes a speciality of his programme for he government and judicial branches of presidency instead of for the legislature and the voters. Dr Hume means that eighteenth-century political notion was once richer in principles approximately executive that has frequently been allowed, yet that Bentham's certain features of brain enabled him to widen and deepen these rules a lot extra than his contemporaries can have foreseen.

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Yet it is certain . . that all these qualities do not exist outside the soul that perceives them - at least it is not evident that they are in the bodies that surround us. 26 Malebranche notes that we perceive colours as spatially extended and 'on' bodies and sounds as 'spread out through the air'. If this is the case, why should we have faith either that states of bodies (or primary qualities) are accurately represented by their ideas, or indeed that bodies exist at all? Berkeley considers each of the different senses - touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight.

It was common practice from the Renaissance onward to give characters in philosophical dialogues names derived from Greek and Latin words that told the reader something about them (as opposed to how Plato used the names of real historical figures like Socrates and Alcibiades in his dialogues). 'Philonous' means 'lover of the mind' or 'lover of knowledge' (which is an appropriate epithet for Berkeley as well, as we shall see) in Greek. 4 The very first words of the dialogue are Philonous' greeting: 'Good morrow, Hylas: I did not expect to find you abroad so early' (D 11:171).

It is amenable to the new science and the corpuscularian physics of Robert Boyle, but does not commit to one ontology or physical theory. At the same time, Locke allows that there is something mental and qualitatively irreducible about experiences of colour and pain. That there is an explanation of how I experience red does not mean that it explains the particular qualitative features of the experience of red. Even if there is an explanation in principle, it does not mean that I or any other finite creature can ever access it.

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