By Andrew Koenig

So much traps and methods are renowned, yet it is often stable programming perform to rememeber them.
So interpreting this booklet (also for skilled programmers) is advised to top bear in mind the root of improvement of well-working software program.

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1 Po~nters and. arrays The C notions of pointers and arrays are inseparably joined, to the extent that it is impossible to understand one thoroughly without also under~ standing the other. Moreover, C treats some. spects of these notions diff~rently from any other well-known language. Two ~hings st~n4 out about. ~ arrays: 1. C has only one-dimensional arrays, and the size of an array must be fixed as "a constant at compilation time. However, an element of an array may be an object of any type, including another array; thi!!

And by checking trivial cases and counting carefully, it is possible to be confident of getting it right. At entry to the loop, Ii is the number of characters to be placed in the buffer. Thus it is clearly right to continue as long as n>O. Each time through the loop, we are going to transfer some number k of characters 42 SEMANTIC PITFALLS CHAPTER 3 into the buffer. The last four statements manage that transfer by (1) copying k characters starting at the first free character in the buffer, (2) advancing the first free location by k characters, (3) advancing the input pointer by k characters, and (4) decreasing the number of characters to write by k.

It is so tempting to assume that a substring of a string that starts at the 16th character and extends through the 37th character is 21 characters long. And this suggests a question: might there be some programming technique that makes these errors less likely? There is, and a single rule covers it: Express a range by the first element of the range and the first element beyond it. In other words, instead of talking about values of x with x ~ 16 and x ~37, talk instead about values with x ~ 16 and x < 38.

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