By Dan Inbar (auth.), Raphaella Bilski, Itzhak Galnoor, Dan Inbar, Yohanan Manor, Gabriel Sheffer (eds.)

Much desire has been put within the power of making plans to unravel social and financial difficulties. within the East ~nd the West, in devel­ oped and less-developed nations, making plans has turn into common. it's been praised and ridiculed, used and misused, either as a trap­ be aware for a greater destiny and as a scapegoat for sour failure. Plan­ ning has been interpreted another way by way of each society, giving upward push to quite a lot of kinds and methods. Fascination with the phenom­ enon has yielded various definitions of making plans, each one of them encouraged by way of the particular difficulties dealing with the planners at the one hand, and by means of the mind's eye, ideology and aspirations of the theo­ rists at the different. notwithstanding, the diversity of ways and definitions has nearly obscured the phenomenon itself and blurred its particular that means. This truth, coupled with sadness with the sensible achievements of plannings, has created a lot feedback of the social and political price of making plans within the West. during this quantity we don't intend to reply to the query no matter if making plans in Western nations has been profitable, nor to indicate particular methods of enhancing it. we will restrict ourselves to offering a case learn of nationwide making plans in a single state. The name of this publication means that the an important query concerning making plans efforts in Israel and maybe in different nations is the strain among pictures of making plans strategies (systematic, entire, dependent, and so on. ) and political strategies (improvised, fragmented, subtle, and so forth. ).

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15. Reference to the Market Mechanism According to this conceptual item, national planning is defined in reference to the market system: should it be negational or affirmational. ive device (Dahl), emitting signals (prices) that provide an adequate frame of reference for many decision-makers, being very sensitive, speedy, responsive, flexible and wholly automatic. In a practical and manageable way, it provides valuable information for making decisions, quickly incorporating and expressing decisions already made on this basis.

2. A Collective Scheme of Development _ This refers to the idea that the core of national planning is that the national community draw up and agree upon a scheme for its future development. This will stimulate the community and, in the words of de Gaulle, will be a "keen undertaking" which will raise new hopes and counterbalance the terrible effects of despair and scepticism so rampant today. 3. Protection Against Surprise In this view, the purpose of national planning is to make contingency preparations to cope with actual or perceived threats to the survival of the national society.

Mobilization of Efforts to Reach Specific Goals Here, national planning is seen as a general effort to concentrate all CONCEPTIONS OF NATIONAL PLANNING 33 the means available to reach specific goals. It evokes images of restrictions, limitations on distribution, austerity, supervision and discipline. It is closely linked with the notion of priority goals. 6. A Driving Myth This conceptual item may seem somewhat similar to item no. " But the elaboration and factual basis of this item are substantially different.

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