By Mary Beacock Fryer

Samuel de Champlain has lengthy been referred to as the founding father of Quebec and as a tireless explorer. not anyone understands needless to say the place he used to be born or who he quite was once. nonetheless, his occupation was once full of fascinating information and his formative years ready him for greatness.


with out Champlains personal particular files, the years 1600 to 1640 in Canada will be virtually a secret. very likely Canadas first multicultural suggest, he dreamed of constructing a brand new humans from French and Aboriginal roots. notwithstanding, his efforts to set up a colony encountered setbacks in France. between his detractors used to be the strong Cardinal Richelieu. Champlain used to be now not of the the Aristocracy and therefore was once thought of undeserving for patronage.


The explorers tale is an exhilarating one, as he explored new territory, verified alliances and understandings with Natives, waged warfare while worthwhile, and left at the back of a legend within the New international that lasts to this present day.

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43 In Liberal circles, no BC lawyer â•› seems to have enjoyed an influence rivalling that of â•›the Vancouver lawyer and former federal Cabinet minister Charles Hibbert ╛╛Tupper (son of â•›the former prime minister Charles Tupper) on the Conservative side. But Laurier seems to have taken advice from Lyman Poore Duff, whom he named to the BC Supreme Court in 1904 and to the Supreme Court of Canada in 1906, and from the Victoria lawyer, judge, and Liberal partisan Archer Martin. ”44 Laurier obliged; indeed, one of â•›his first appointments was Martin himself, who was named to the Supreme Court of â•›British Columbia in 1898 at the age of â•›just thirty-three.

Five-judge panels were comparatively rare from 1913 to 1920. It is possible (but undocumented) that, in these years, the fifth judge sometimes remained in the city where the court was not sitting, in order to handle chambers work. By the 1920s, the whole court heard most cases: in two-thirds of our sample of cases, it sat in five-judge panels. Only in 1936 did the fourjudge panel disappear, and that change was imposed on the court by a statutory amendment. At the end of the Macdonald-Martin years, with the four-judge panel eliminated, the panel of â•›three began to dominate.

B. ”34 Most Canadian judges in that period were determined to seek authority for their decisions in higher courts, in existing precedents from those courts, and in the specific wording of statutes, rather than, say, by working back from the facts toward fundamental principles of â•›law or equity. In Risk’s description, the courts seemed to assume that the common law was composed of rules firmly settled by authority, primarily English authority ... The process of making decisions seemed usually to be simply finding facts and applying the rules.

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