By Dr. A. D. A. Kat De Angelino (auth.)

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This administrative division also covered the Javanese states - in other words, the whole of Java and of Madura except Batavia, which remained an enclave until 1819. The Residents had now to carry on the administration. They were instructed therefore to make regular tours in order to establish direct contact with the population, which was granted the right of placing its wishes and grievances before the Resident himself. In order to allow the Resident to carry out a more inten- 28 THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM sive administration reaching down to the population itself, they were given assistants.

Until 1855, therefore, the Governor-General was de facto the East Indian government. The East Indian Government Act of 1854 restored to the Council the most important functions, mainly from the legislative point of view. It then became a separate body that was partly advisory and partly co-governing. e. the revised Government Act of 1854) had elevated the advisory Council of the People to a co-legislative body. Since then the Council of the Indies has been mainly an advisory organ. In the years of the compulsory cultivation system, the Governor-General was invested with a fulness of power which was scarcely less than that of an absolute ruler.

After many experiments at suspending and sub-dividing Regencies, the present arrangement of 75 for Java and Madura was reached. The sub-division into districts under Wedonos and of districts into sub-districts under Assistant Wedonos displays this gradual process of an increasingly better administrative organisation 2). Regional administration was divided by the Commissioners General over 20 Residencies (Stbl. 1819, No. 16) whose jurisdiction for the first time covered the whole of Java and Madura.

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