By D. K. Fieldhouse
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Extra resources for Colonialism 1870–1945: An Introduction
7. K. Fieldhouse, The Colonial Empires (London 1966). 8. Lugard set out his ideas most fully in The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, (London 1922 3rd ed. London 1926). 9. H. Roberts, History London 1925), Vol I, p. 113. 0/ French Colonial Policy; /870-/925 (2 vols 10. 'French Poliey in Afriea between the Wars' in France and Britain in Africa , ed. G . R. Louis (New Haven Conn. 1971), pp. 568-9 . 11. The Economics of Colonialism 1, The issues It has long been con ventional to believe that colon ialism was primarilya device by which the rich imperial states could exploit their dependcncies and, consequentially, that the effect of colonialism was to perpetuate, or even to create, poverty in the colonies.
Put negatively, the concept emphasized that non-European peoples had a claim not to be compelled to change their identity ; positive1y, that indigenous social, cultural and political institutions had intrinsic value and should form the basis from which each society could evolve. " Indirect rule was cheap because it did not need many paid 34 COLONIALISM 1870-1945 officials and effective because there was little challenge to conservative prejudice. ) and to adopt improved systems of government, taxation, production, etc.
For better or worse colonialism in most territories meant absolute rule by Platonic guardians or perhaps enlightened despots ofthe eighteenth century. iv. Contrasting attitudes to colonial administration : Britain, France and other powers In retrospect the common characteristics of all the modern colonial systems that have been outlined above seem more important than differences between the attitudes and practices of individual states. Yet at the time , and still in the mythology of particular European and ex-colonial states, emphasis was placed on differences of approach which expressed the peculiar character of individual countries and colonies.