By Arthur C. Danto

Thinker Arthur Danto turns his telescope at the far-off notions of visual appeal and fact and explains how they've got formed sure key philosophical debates, particularly in regard to wisdom, brain, language, and causation.

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Heaven and Hell Whichcote and Cudworth’s theology and conception of human nature also led them to develop a new understanding of heaven and hell. In opposition to the prevailing Calvinist approach, Whichcote and Cudworth argued that ministers ought not to describe heaven as “a place of rest and content” and hell as “a place of fire and brimstone, weeping and wailing, and gnashing of teeth” (Whichcote II 196–7). Indeed, ministers ought not to emphasize the idea that heaven and hell are places at all.

Indeed, ministers ought not to emphasize the idea that heaven and hell are places at all. For what is most important about heaven and hell is that they are states of mind that follow necessarily from our awareness of the rightness or wrongness of our own conduct. The essential feature of heaven is not any externally bestowed benefit but rather the consciousness of having lived in a God-like fashion. ” The internal mental states that follow from one’s awareness of one’s own conduct are so important to Whichcote and Cudworth that they even go so far as to suggest that God Himself cannot bring unhappiness to a person who is aware of his own goodness nor bring happiness to a person who is aware of his own evil.

B. Whichcote and Cudworth’s “Spirit of Religion” The belief in the necessity of a single enforceable state religion fueled fierce disputes in the 1640s about the particulars of churchly procedure. People battled over questions such as: How much of the Sunday service should be devoted to sermonizing and how much to worship and prayer? Should there be an altar, and if so, should it be raised? Should organ music be allowed in church? Should there be images in the stained glass? Where should the communion table be placed, at the east end of the church or in the middle?

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